Direct contact (DC) interventions communicate directly with men whose behaviour puts them at risk of HIV exposure or transmission. In this section we describe 11 core interventions, which are grouped here according to their most basic common elements.

Talking and listening Talking and listening relates to direct, usually verbal, interaction. Interventions 1-3 offer information and advice through discussion and exchange, and 4-6 focus more on personal transformation over time.

Reading and writing Reading and writing interventions are text-based and require a mode of delivery to the intended users.

  • Small media: Printed resources including newsletters, booklets, leaflets, posters or cards.
  • Mass media: Text and image-based adverts placed in newspapers, magazines or online.
  • Websites: Text, images and other resources available online.

Giving and talking Giving and taking interventions focus on delivering resources and actual services to people who need them.